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Sarukkai, Sundar. Indian Philosophy and Philosophy of Science
2005, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
Added by: Laura Jimenez

Summary: Sundar Sarukkai’s Indian Philosophy and Philosophy of Science shows how the two very different approaches from East and West can illuminate each other. It is not an introduction to the philosophy of science, but rather an invitation to look at philosophy of science in a new way, using the approaches of classical Indian logic, in particular Navya Nyāya . Sarukkai’s major thesis is that in the West philosophy of science tries to put logic into science, and that in the East Indian logic seeks to put science into logic. The naïve Western approach takes an abstract view of logic and formulates science using abstract logical and mathematical theories. Indian logic looks at the world and remains involved with the world throughout. Because of this, logical arguments have to involve contingent matters of fact or observation .Western readers may find the lack of distinction between induction and deduction disturbing, but the Eastern involvement with the world, not merely abstraction, reflects a different way of looking at what logic is and where its origins lie.

Comment: An essential bok for those interested in Indian philosophy of science. The topic is very specialized, but the book is really clear and could be read by both undergraduates and postgraduates. Chapter 3 is really recommendable for undergraduates, since it offers a great introduction to classical indian logic.

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One thought on “Indian Philosophy and Philosophy of Science

  1. Science and Religion: the unity. / by Israel Socratus /
    The Universe as whole consists of Cosmic Vacuum and Galaxies.
    There are cosmological and terrestrial words.
    Relationship between God and the world.
    Physics can create God’s image.
    A model of God’s activity.
    Scientific visualization of God’s activity.
    From infinity/eternity to limits
    God created the universe by physical and math laws.
    ——–
    Modern science and ancient religions.
    “The Universe is Conscious.” /Hermeticism/
    ‘’ The stream of knowledge is heading towards a non-mechanical reality;
    the Universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine’’
    / James Jeans /
    1 – God as Lord, Father, Mind (Nous), the Creator, the All, the Old One, etc.. . . can be
    the infinite Cosmic Vacuum . . .
    From the substance of the Cosmic Vacuum everything proceeds.
    The Cosmic Vacuum is unique and infinite (∞) . . . and full with dark matter, dark energy and quantum virtual particles . . . all this stuff can appear as real and create everything . . . and therefore the Cosmic Vacuum can execute function of God. Everything is in the Cosmic Vacuum and the Cosmic vacuum is everywhere in everything . . .
    The book ‘’ The quantum self ’’ :
    ” If we were looking for something that we could conceive of as God within the universe of the new physics,
    this ground state, coherent quantum vacuum might be a good place to start.”
    / page 208, by Danah Zohar. /
    2 – The principle of order
    By chance, it is impossible to create the universe during 14 billion years according to “Infinite monkey theorem” . . . To create by chance needs trillion years (a trillion is 1000 billions)
    Conclusion:
    The universe was created by order (consciously)
    3 – The principle “As above, so below”
    The forces that rule above (in the cosmic vacuum) so rule below (in the gravity words)
    4 – The principle of vibration
    Nothing rests; everything moves; everything vibrates.
    “ If you wish to understand the Universe, think of energy, frequency and vibration.“
    / Nikola Tesla /
    5 – The principle of polarity: everything is dual
    (Concept of duality in the Quantum physics)
    6 – The principle of rhythm-cycle
    “Everything flows, out and in; everything has its tides; all things rise and fall.”
    7 – The principle of cause and effect
    “Every cause has its effect; every effect has its cause; everything happens according to karma law; chance is but a name for law not recognized; there are many planes of causation, but nothing escapes the law karma”
    8 – The principle of gender
    “Gender is in everything; everything has its masculine and feminine principles; gender manifests on all planes.”
    9 – The principle of difference and unity
    The universe consists of two different kinds of quantum particles: bosons and fermions.
    Bosons (prakriti – by Vedas) are passive particles.
    Fermions (purusha – by Vedas) are active-charge-vital particles.
    Their unity created everything (atoms, stars, living beings) in the universe.
    10 – Principle of “reincarnation”
    Renormalization and Reincarnation – Next Life.
    Scientific motto: “If you get infinity (∞) in an equation, it’s usually a sign that you’ve made a mistake.” To avoid “a mistake of infinity”, a mathematical “method of renormalization” is used. And Feynman said that the method of renormalization is a method “to sweep the dust under the carpet”. In the other words ”renormalization” is a method that hides ”reincarnation” of quantum particles “under the carpet”.
    =============…
    The Universe (cosmological and terrestrial) exists in the Cosmic Vacuum(T=0K)
    The Cosmic Vacuum (T=0K) is an absolute, infinite, eternal (no time), homogeneous, isotropic and cold structure. After one cosmic horizon there is another equal and so and so to . . . (∞). (Mikowski called it as an absolute 4D spacetime)
    #
    According to Einstein’s SRT for quantum of light at constant speed (c) in the Cosmic Vacuum the time is frozen, stopped. Such movement is possible if the Cosmic Vacuum itself is an eternal reference frame.
    #
    As religions, and so modern physics also says that the Cosmic Vacuum is not an empty structure. Religions filled Cosmos with spiritual creatures and Quantum physics filled Cosmic Vacuum with Einstein/Dirac’s virtual (dualistic) particles: E= ± mc^2.
    #
    Cosmic Vacuum is not static, firm structure . . . quantum fluctuations take place in cosmic vacuum . . . (was observed in the Casimir effect, Lamb shift . . . ) . . . when the virtual particles arises as real particles. This process is going according ‘’The Law of conservation and transformation energy/mass’’ , when the dualistic E= ± mc^2 transforms into dualistic E=hf ( h-corpuscular, f-wave-frequency).
    #
    To change the dualistic E= ± mc^2 ability into E=hf the quantum particle must have some kind of consciousness. ”[T]he laws of quantum mechanics itself cannot be formulated … without recourse to the concept of consciousness.”
    / Eugene Wigner, the Nobel Prize in Physics 1963 /
    And evolution of consciousness is going step by step (from atom, cell, flower . . . to a living being) and according to ancient Vedas conception: ‘’from a vague wish up to the clear thought ‘’. In Nature the development of matter-body is going together with the evolution of mind-consciousness.
    #
    We live in Earth gravity-time and Earth gravity-space (air)
    Other planets have their own gravity-time and gravity-space.
    The system without gravity-matter is so called ‘’an absolute Minkowski 4D spacetime’’.
    #
    The Cosmic Vacuum (T=0K) realizes the functions of God.
    The quantum virtual particles realize the function of the Spiritual (vital) source of life.
    The creation of the universe began from these physical and math laws.
    The Cosmic Vacuum/God (T=0K) is source of everything in Nature.
    ——-.
    Best wishes
    Israel Sadovnik Socratus.
    =================.
    P.S.
    Charles de Montesquieu wrote:
    ” Everybody creates his God according to his own image and spirit.
    If triangles made a God they would give him three sides.”
    / Charles de Montesquieu . Persian Letters, 1721 /
    But if physicists make a God, they would give the OLD ONE
    concrete mathematical and physical parameters.
    ============….

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