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Zagzebski, Linda, , . The inescapability of Gettier Problems
1994, Philosophical Quarterly 44 (174): 65-73.
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Added by: Jie Gao, Contributed by:

Conclusion: Almost every contemporary theory of justification or warrant aims only to give the conditions for putting the believer in the best position for getting the truth. The best position is assumed to be very good, but imperfect, for such is life. Properly functioning faculties need not be working perfectly, but only well enough; reliable belief-producing mechanisms need not be perfectly reliable, only reliable enough; evidence for a belief need not support it conclusively, but only well enough; and so on. As long as the truth is never assured by the conditions which make the state justified, there will be situations in which a false belief is justified. I argue that with this common, in fact, almost universal assumption, Gettier cases will never go away.

Comment: This is a great paper on the Gettier problem for epistemic justification. It is often used in combination with the original paper by Gettier in elucidating the nature of the Gettier problem. Suitable for undergraduate epistemology courses.

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Zagzebski, Linda, , . What is Knowledge?
1999, in John Greco & Ernest Sosa (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology (Oxford: Blackwell)): 92-116.
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Added by: Emily Paul, Contributed by: Wayne Riggs

Summary: This chapter is an analysis of propositional knowledge, including how we are to define it, focusing on ‘justified true belief’ and Gettier objections. It concludes with a definition of knowledge as ‘an act of intellectual virtue’, drawing on virtue ethics. Zagzebski then defends this definition.

Comment: Very useful as an introduction to an introductory course on Epistemology. Sets the scene really well by introducing the concept of knowledge, and different kinds of knowledge and Gettier cases. For this reason, it would make a great first reading on an introductory epistemology module.

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