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Jackson, Jennifer, and . Common Codes: Divergent Practices

1994, In Chadwick, Ruth (ed.), Ethics and the Professions. Avebury: Ashgate.

Comment: Jackson explores the differences between variations in application and in interpretation of codes of ethics in professional settings, and argues that differences in application need not be problematic. She distinguishes aspirational obligations and obligations imposing side constraints in codes of ethics, and argues that they should not be confused. The text is most useful in teaching applied and professional ethics classes on codes of ethics, but can also offer a good further reading in introduction to ethics modules which aim to show the practical relevance of moral philosophy.

Kantymir, Lori, and Carolyn McLeod. Justification for Conscience Exemptions in Health Care

2013, Bioethics 28 (1): 16-23.

Abstract: Some bioethicists argue that conscientious objectors in health care should have to justify themselves, just as objectors in the military do. They should have to provide reasons that explain why they should be exempt from offering the services that they find offensive. There are two versions of this view in the literature, each giving different standards of justification. We show these views are each either too permissive (i.e. would result in problematic exemptions based on conscience) or too restrictive (i.e. would produce problematic denials of exemption). We then develop a middle ground position that we believe better combines respect for the conscience of healthcare professionals with concern for the duties that they owe to patients. Our claim, in short, is that insofar as objectors should have to justify themselves, they should have to do it according to the standard that we defend rather than according to the standards that others have developed.

Comment: This text responds to two proposals for justifying concientious objection in the provision of health care services: genuineness and reasonableness. It would fit well within a course on medical ethics or bioethics. It also would fit well within a more general course on professional ethics, as it concerns the question of when a professional is able to justify the omission of an action that they are bound by professional duty to complete.

Mulla, Zubin R. and Krishnan, Venkat R., and . Transformational Leadership. Do the Leader’s Morals Matter and Do the Follower’s Morals Change?

2011, Journal of Human Values 17 (2):129-143.

Abstract: In a study of 205 leader–follower pairs, we investigated the impact of the leader’s values and empathy on followers’ perception of transformational leadership and the effect of transformational leadership on followers’ values and empathy. The moderating effect of leader–follower relationship duration on the effect of transformational leadership on followers’ values and empathy was also investigated. We found that the leader’s values were related to transformational leadership and transformational leadership was related to followers’ values. Over time, the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ empathy and values became stronger

Comment: This text provides an excellent background reading on issues related to leadership and business ethics, making clear connections between philosophical theory and its practical application.