
Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by:
Publisher’s Note: Professor Merrie Bergmann presents an accessible introduction to the subject of manyvalued and fuzzy logic designed for use on undergraduate and graduate courses in nonclassical logic. Bergmann discusses the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic – problems arising from vague language – and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, threevalued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic. The major fuzzy logical systems – Lukasiewicz, Gödel, and product logics – are then presented as generalisations of threevalued systems that successfully address the problems of vagueness. A clear presentation of technical concepts, this book includes exercises throughout the text that pose straightforward problems, that ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, and that engage students in the comparison of logical systems.
Comment: In the words of the author: ‘This textbook can be used as a complete basis for an introductory course on formal manyvalued and fuzzy logics, at either the upperlevel undergraduate or the graduate level, and it can also be used as a supplementary text in a variety of courses. There is considerable flexibility in either case. The truthvalued semantic chapters are independent of the algebraic and axiomatic ones, so that either of the latter may be skipped. Except for Section 13.3 of Chapter 13, the axiomatic chapters are also independent of the algebraic ones, and an instructor who chooses to skip the algebraic material can simply ignore the latter part of 13.3. Finally, Lukasiewicz fuzzy logic is presented independently of Gödel and product fuzzy logics, thus allowing an instructor to focus solely on the former. There are exercises throughout the text. Some pose straightforward problems for the student to solve, but many exercises also ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, to prove results analogous to those in the text, and to compare the various logical systems that are presented.’ The book does include a review of classical propositional and firstorder logic, but the students should’ve taken at least one basic logic course before getting into this material.

Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by:
Publisher’s note: This volume is an accessible introduction to the subject of manyvalued and fuzzy logic suitable for use in relevant advanced undergraduate and graduate courses. The text opens with a discussion of the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic – problems arising from vague language – and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, three valued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic. The major fuzzy logical systems – Lukasiewicz, Godel, and product logics – are then presented as generalizations of threevalued systems that successfully address the problems of vagueness. Semantic and axiomatic systems for threevalued and fuzzy logics are examined along with an introduction to the algebras characteristic of those systems. A clear presentation of technical concepts, this book includes exercises throughout the text that pose straightforward problems, ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, and engage them in the comparison of logical systems.
Comment: This book is ideal for an intermediatelevel course on manyvalued and/or fuzzy logic. Although it includes a presentation of propositional and firstorder logic, it is intended for students who are familiar with classical logic. However, no previous knowledge of manyvalued or fuzzy logic is required. It can also be used as a secondary reading for a general course on nonclassical logics.

Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by:
Summary: This book is an introductory textbook on mathematical logic. It covers Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic. For each of these formalisms it presents its syntax and formal semantics as well as a tableauxstyle method of consistencychecking and a natural deductionstyle deductive calculus. Moreover, it discusses the metatheory of both logics.
Comment: This book would be ideal for an introductory course on symbolic logic. It presupposes no previous training in logic, and because it covers sentential logic through the metatheory of firstorder predicate logic, it is suitable for both introductory and intermediate courses in symbolic logic. The instructor who does not want to emphasize metatheory can simply omit Chapters 6 and 11. The chapters on truthtrees and the chapters on derivations are independent, so it is possible to cover truthtrees but not derivations and vice versa. However, the chapters on truthtrees do depend on the chapters presenting semantics; that is, Chapter 4 depends on Chapter 3 and Chapter 9 depends on Chapter 8. In contrast, the derivation chapters can be covered without first covering semantics. The Logic Book includes large exercise sets for all chapters. Answers to unstarred exercises appear in the Student Solutions Manual, available at www.mhhe.com/bergmann6e, while answers to starred exercises appear in the Instructor’s Manual, which can be obtained by following the instructions on the same web page.

Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by:
Publisher’s Note: Although sequent calculi constitute an important category of proof systems, they are not as well known as axiomatic and natural deduction systems. Addressing this deficiency, Proof Theory: Sequent Calculi and Related Formalisms presents a comprehensive treatment of sequent calculi, including a wide range of variations. It focuses on sequent calculi for various nonclassical logics, from intuitionistic logic to relevance logic, linear logic, and modal logic. In the first chapters, the author emphasizes classical logic and a variety of different sequent calculi for classical and intuitionistic logics. She then presents other nonclassical logics and metalogical results, including decidability results obtained specifically using sequent calculus formalizations of logics.
Comment: This book can be used in a variety of advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 8 may be useful in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course, where an emphasis is placed on classical logic and on a range of different proof calculi (mainly for classical logic). Chapters 4, 5 and 6 deal almost exclusively with nonclassical logics. Chapters 7 and 9 are rich in metalogical results, including results that have been obtained specifically using sequent calculus formalizations of various logics. These last five chapters might be used in a graduate course that embraces classical and nonclassical logics together with their metatheory. To facilitate the use of the book as a text in a course, the text is peppered with exercises. In general, the starring indicates an increase in difficulty, however, sometimes an exercise is starred simply because it goes beyond the scope of the book or it is very lengthy. Solutions to selected exercises may be found on the web at the URL www.ualberta.ca/˜bimbo/ProofTheoryBook.

Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by: Matt Clemens
Publisher’s Note: This teaching book is designed to help its readers to reason systematically, reliably, and to some extent selfconsciously, in the course of their ordinary pursuitsprimarily in inquiry and in decision making. The principles and techniques recommended are explained and justified – not just stated; the aim is to teach orderly thinking, not the manipulation of symbols. The structure of material follows that of Quine’s Methods of Logic, and may be used as an introduction to that work, with sections on truthfunctional logic, predicate logic, relational logic, and identity and description. Exercises are based on problems designed by authors including Quine, John Cooley, Richard Jeffrey, and Lewis Carroll.
Comment: This book is adequate for a first course on formal logic. Moreover, its table of contents follows that of Quine’s “Methods of Logic”, thus it can serve as an introduction or as a reference text for the study of the latter.

Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by:
Description – This comprehensive introduction presents the fundamentals of symbolic logic clearly, systematically, and in a straightforward style accessible to readers. Each chapter, or unit, is divided into easily comprehended small bites that enable learners to master the material stepbystep, rather than being overwhelmed by masses of information covered too quickly. The book provides extremely detailed explanations of procedures and techniques, and was written in the conviction that anyone can thoroughly master its content. A fourpart organization covers sentential logic, monadic predicate logic, relational predicate logic, and extra credit units that glimpse into alternative methods of logic and more advanced topics.
Comment: This book is ideal for a first introduction course to formal logic. It doesn’t presuppose any logical knowledge. It covers propositional and firstorder logic (monadic and relational).

Expand entry
 Added by: Berta Grimau, Contributed by:
Description: This book is a leading text for symbolic or formal logic courses. All techniques and concepts are presented with clear, comprehensive explanations and numerous, carefully constructed examples. Its flexible organization (all chapters are complete and selfcontained) allows instructors the freedom to cover the topics they want in the order they choose. A free Student Solutions Manual is packaged with every copy of the textbook. Two logic programs, Bertie III and Twootie, are available as a free download from the University of Connecticut Philosophy Department’s Web site. The Web address for downloading the software is //www.ucc.uconn.edu/~wwwphil/software.html. Bertie 3 is a proof checker for the natural deduction method and Twootie is a proof checker for the truth tree method.
CONTENTS: Chapter 1: Basic Notions of Logic, Chapter 2: Sentential Logic: Symbolization and Syntax, Chapter 3: Sentential Logic: Semantics, Chapter 4: Sentential Logic: TruthTrees, Chapter 5: Sentential Logic: Derivations, Chapter 6: Sentential Logic: Metatheory, Chapter 7: Predicate Logic: Symbolization and Syntax, Chapter 8: Predicate Logic: Semantics, Chapter 9: Predicate Logic: TruthTrees, Chapter 10: Predicate Logic: Derivations, Chapter 11: Predicate Logic: Metatheory.
Comment: This book may serve as the main reading or reference book for an introductory course to formal logic. It doesn’t presuppose any knowledge of logic and is thus recommended for use in undergrad level logic courses. It comes with solutions to most of its exercises, which is great for students to practice and study on their own, but may be a drawback, since the teacher will need to design exercises of her own in order to assign homework to the students.