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Lovibond, Sabina, , . Realism and Imagination in Ethics
1983, Blackwell.
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Added by: Clotilde Torregrossa, Contributed by:

Publisher’s Note: In Realism and Imagination in Ethics, author Sabina Lovibond explores the non-cognitive theory of ethics along with its objections and the alternative of moral realism. Delving into expressivism, perception, moral sense theory, objectivity, and more, this book pulls from Wittgenstein, Hegel, Bradley, Nietzsche and others to explore the many facets of ethics and perception. The discussion analyzes the language, theories, and criteria surrounding ethical action, and describes the faults and fallacies of traditional schools of thought.

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Nussbaum, Martha, , . Non-Relative Virtues
2001, in Paul K. Moser, Thomas L. Carson (eds.), Moral Relativism, New York: Oxford University Press.
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Comment: This text provides an interesting commentary to Nicomachean Ethics, offering a discussion of the relation between Aristotle’s theoretical framework and particular cultural attitudes.

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O’Neill, Onora, , . Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant’s Practical Philosophy
1989, Cambridge University Press.
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Publisher’s Note: Two centuries after they were published, Kant’s ethical writings are as much admired and imitated as they have ever been, yet serious and long-standing accusations of internal incoherence remain unresolved. Onora O’Neill traces the alleged incoherences to attempts to assimilate Kant’s ethical writings to modern conceptions of rationality, action and rights. When the temptation to assimilate is resisted, a strikingly different and more cohesive account of reason and morality emerges. Kant offers a “constructivist” vindication of reason and a moral vision in which obligations are prior to rights and in which justice and virtue are linked. O’Neill begins by reconsidering Kant’s conceptions of philosophical method, reason, freedom, autonomy and action. She then moves on to the more familiar terrain of interpretation of the Categorical Imperative, while in the last section she emphasizes differences between Kant’s ethics and recent “Kantian” ethics, including the work of John Rawls and other contemporary liberal political philosophers

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Vavova, Katia, , . Evolutionary Debunking of Moral Realism
2015, Philosophy Compass 10(2): 104-116
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Added by: Simon Fokt, Contributed by: Lisa Bastian

Abstract: Evolutionary debunking arguments move from a premise about the influence of evolutionary forces on our moral beliefs to a skeptical conclusion about those beliefs. My primary aim is to clarify this empirically grounded epistemological challenge. I begin by distinguishing among importantly different sorts of epistemological attacks. I then demonstrate that instances of each appear in the literature under the ‘evolutionary debunking- title. Distinguishing them clears up some confusions and helps us better understand the structure and potential of evolutionary debunking arguments.

Comment: This is a great paper to read in an introductory yet challenging metaethics course: it is accessible enough to be read by students with little background knowledge but is also interesting to read in that it puts forward an argument and is a good example of current research in the field.

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